Great Lakes-Boreal Wolf (Canis lupus x lycaon):
Great Lakes-Boreal Wolves (aka Boreal-type Grey Wolves; Ontario-type Grey Wolves; Eastern Timber Wolves; Great Lakes Wolves) have a mixed ancestry as the result of either ancient (~11,000 years ago) or historic (~100 years ago) hybridization between Grey Wolves and Eastern Wolves. They are intermediate in size between Grey and Eastern Wolves and occur in the Great Lakes States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, as well as in northwestern and northeastern Ontario. Based on genetic analyses, Wolves in northwestern Ontario tend to be more influenced by hybridization with Grey Wolves and those in northeastern Ontario tend to be more influenced by hybridization with Eastern Wolves. Recent work suggests that Great Lakes-Boreal Wolves in the western Great Lakes States do not directly hybridize with Coyotes in that region.
Great Lakes-Boreal Wolves have been the subject of great debate recently due to the controversy over delisting Grey Wolves from the US Endangered Species List and the lack of a viable hybrid policy. In December of 2011, however, a decision was made to consider Wolves in the Great Lakes States as Grey Wolves and thus they were delisted.
Weight: 55 – 130 lbs (25 – 46 kg). Males are typically heavier and taller than the females
Pelage: Mostly seal gray
Litter Size: 2-7 pups
Age at Dispersal: 11 – 24 months
Pack Size: typically 8 – 10, but some reports of 23 in Minnesota and 19 in northwestern Ontario
Maximum Territory Size: ~557 km2